In recent months, there has been increased focus on immigration trends and the evolving immigration policy landscape amid heightened immigration activity at the US-Mexico border. 2021 existed20.8 millionNon-citizens and 23.9 million naturalized US residents, accounting for about 6% and 7% of the total population, respectively. Non-citizens include legally present and undocumented immigrants. Many people live in families of mixed immigrant status, which may include legally present immigrants, undocumented immigrants and/or citizens, including one in four children who have an immigrant parent. Over the past two years, immigration activity at the border has more than increased2 millionEncounters at the US-Mexico border in 2022. Against this backdrop, there have been ongoing changes to several key immigration policies. reflecting the actions of the Biden administration and court rulings.
This briefing provides the latest update on some key evolving immigration policies, including Title 42 related to border enforcement, the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program, and the Freight Rule, and analyzes the health implications of these policies. and the welfare of immigrants.
Title 42 remains in effect, restricting some immigrants' entry at the border, at least until February 2023, when the Supreme Court hears arguments about whether a coalition of states, including Texas, can appeal a lower court ruling that ordered the policy to get high. .
Title 42of the Public Health Services Act is a public health agency that authorizes the director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to suspend entry of individuals into the United States to protect public health.This authority wasimplementedby the Trump administration in March 2020 in response to the COVID-19 pandemic to allow expedited deportations of migrants, including asylum seekers, attempting to enter the United States at land borders. After taking office, the Biden administration continued to enforce Title 42, with new exceptions for unaccompanied minors, butAnnouncedplans to end the suspension of entry in 2022cutChallenges will keep the policy in effect until at least February 2023, when the Supreme Court will hear arguments about whether a group of states, including Texas, can appeal a lower court ruling to overturn it.
2022 more1 Million, or nearly half (45%) of all border encounters with migrants were under Title 42.A large majority (89%) of Title 42 evictions were to single adults. Research shows that Title 42 expulsions have had negative health and health impactswelfareof migrant families. doctorsrecommendProximity to others during temporary detention or repatriation to Mexico, lack of medical evaluation, and failure to provide necessary medication can have adverse effects on physical and mental health.
Immigrant activity at the border is expected to increase when Title 42 is repealed, and the Biden administration has outlined new steps it will take to improve border enforcement.As Title 42 is repealed, addressing health and healthcare needs will become increasingly importantborder areas, given the differences and challenges in these areas, particularly in the border region of Texas (Figure 1). That's what the Biden administration announcedairplanesincrease border security and enforcement to reduce illegal border crossings, expand “legal avenues for orderly migration,” invest additional resources in the border region, and work with Mexico to implement the above plans.
DACA-Programm (Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals).
In accordance with recent court orders, the government will not process first-time DACA applications, but existing DACA permits remain in effect and may be renewed.
IsDACAThe program was originally established in June 2012 under a presidential executive order to protect certain undocumented immigrants brought to the United States as children from deportation proceedings and obtain work permits for renewable two-year terms.. Besuitable, Individuals must have entered the United States before their 16th birthday and before June 15, 2007; be under the age of 31 as of June 15, 2012; be currently enrolled in school, have completed high school or equivalent, or be a veteran; and have no legal status as of June 15, 2012. The program has more than allowed900.000Immigrants to stay in the US, go to school and contribute to the economy through paid employment.
As of September 30, 2022, there were more than 589,000 DACA recipients in the United States.The majority (58%) of active DACA recipients live in California, Texas, Illinois, New York, and Florida, 54% are women, and 65% are 21-30 years old.
While DACA protects an individual from deportation for a period of time, it does not provide legal status or a pathway to U.S. citizenship, and individuals with DACA status remain ineligible for federally funded health insurance.Individuals with DACA status can be admitted to work, and studies have found that DACA eligibility helps improvephysicistjmentalhealth, especially among people on low incomes, and can improve well-beingKinderfrom DACA recipients. However, people with DACA have limited health insurance coverage options if they do not have access to employer-sponsored insurance because they are eligible for many federal programs, including Medicaid health coverage, the children's health insurance program, and the Affordable Care Act (ACA) health insurance marketplaces.
The Biden administration released alast rulein 2022, which would codify DACA broadly in line with its existing approval and scope requirements, but its implementation is limited pending court orders.The promulgation of this standard followed aresignationof the Trump administration program in 2017 that was decidedillegalby the Supreme Court in 2020. While the final rule of the Biden administration becameEffectiveon October 31, 2022, its implementation is limited subject to ongoing litigation. A federal appeals courtDecisionIn early October 2022, it found that the original 2012 DACA rule was unlawful and remanded the case back to the district court for further processing under the new rules. Subject to current court orders, current DACA permits and work permits will remain in effect as of October 31, 2022, and the Department of Homeland Security will continue to process DACA renewal applications and related work permit applications. It also accepts initial DACA and work permit applications, but is unable to process initial applications per current court orders, leaving those applications on hold.
Even as initial processing of DACA applications resumes, the number of young adults eligible for DACA is declining. Given the requirements of having entered the United States before June 15, 2007 and being under the age of 31 on June 15, 2012, the number of individuals who might be eligible for DACA is decreasing over time. HeAmerican Dreams and Promises (DREAM) Act von 2021would provide a pathway to lawful permanent resident status and eventual citizenship for undocumented immigrants brought to the United States as children who meet certain requirements. Since then, various versions of this law have been proposed in the United States Congress2001, but they were never passed and there doesn't seem to be a way to pass such legislation at the moment.
If the district court reviewing the current case finds the DACA program illegal and no additional legislative or administrative action is taken, the individuals will lose their deferred status.Losing DACA status would result in individuals losing work permits and potentially being deported. Employers are likely to fire employees if they lose their work permits, resulting in job loss and loss of employer-based health insurance. Without access to coverage from an employer, many people would likely becomeuninsuredas they are not eligible to enroll in Medicaid or CHIP or to purchase insurance coverage through the marketplaces. The loss of jobs and coverage would result in increased financial pressures and reduced access to care for individuals and their families, which may include citizens' children.
public tax code
On December 23, 2022, the Biden administration's new public fee rules went into effect, but continued outreach and education efforts will be key to easing fears about enrollment in health insurance and other assistance programs among immigrant families.
Under long-standing immigration policies, federal officials can refuse entry into the United States or adjustment to LPR status (i.e., a "green card") for someone they believe to be onepublic levy.In 2021, the Biden administration stopped enforcing public fee regulations introduced by the Trump administration2019that it had recently considered the use of in-kind assistance programs, including Medicaid, in public fee regulations. Instead, he returned to use1999 Field Guide, which does not account for the use of in-kind services, including Medicaid coverage, except for long-term institutionalization in determining public fees. In 2022, it issued new regulations that largely codified this field guide. A stated key objective of the 2022 public charging scheme is to combat itChilling Effectsthe 2019 rule that prompted many immigrant families, includingcitizen childrennot even to seek help from these familiesHealth insuranceand care to which they were entitled.
The last public charge rule waspublishedon September 9, 2022 and became effective on December 23, 2022, but families may still avoid participating in assistance programs for fear of potential negative consequences for their immigration status or that of a family member.Un KFF 2021Opinion pollof Hispanic adults found that 1 in 4 potentially undocumented Hispanic adults and more than 1 in 10 lawful permanent resident Hispanic adults reported that they or a family member had not attended a state immigration office in the past three years because of related fears related to immigration have participated in the aid program (Figure 3). Even with the new rule now in effect, overcoming these fears will likely require continued outreach efforts by trusted community ambassadors.Addressing these fears will be key to reducing the large gapsHealth insurance for immigrantsand middle-class children in immigrant families.
Immigrants are a diverse and growing population who make important contributions to the United States.culturaljBusiness. As immigration policies evolve through legislative, administrative, and judicial actions, it is important to understand how these changes impact immigrants' access to healthcare and the overall health and well-being of immigrant families.